Time series study of weather, water quality, and acute gastroenteritis at Water Safety Plan implementation sites in France and Spain
Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, can help drinking water suppliers to proactively identify potential risks and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. Few studies have investigated long-term impacts of WSPs, such as changes in drinking water quality or public health; however, some evidence from high-income countries associates WSP implementation with a reduction in diarrheal
disease. To validate the previously observed linkages between WSPs and health outcomes, this time series
study examined site-specific relationships between water-related exposures and acute gastroenteritis rates at three locations in France and Spain, including the role of WSP status. Relationships between control or exposure variables and health outcomes were tested using Poisson regression within generalized additive models. Controls included suspected temporal trends in disease reporting. Exposures included temperature, precipitation, raw water quality, and finished water quality (e.g., turbidity, free chlorine). In France, daily acute gastroenteritis cases were tracked using prescription reimbursements; Spanish data aggregated monthly acute gastroenteritis hospital visits. The models identified several significant relationships between indicators of exposure and acute gastroenteritis. Lag times of 6–9 days (including transit time) were most relevant for hydrological indicators (related to precipitation, runoff, and flow) at the two French sites, indicative of viral pathogens. Flush events (defined as surface runoff after a two-week antecedent dry period) linked to nonpoint source pollution were associated with a 10% increase in acute gastroenteritis rates at one location supplied by surface water. Acute gastroenteritis rates were positively associated with elevated turbidity average or maximum values in finished water at locations supplied by both surface and groundwater, by about 4% per 1-NTU increase in the two-week moving average of daily maxima or about 10% per 0.1 NTU increase in the prior month’s average value. In some
cases, risk appeared to be mitigated by WSP-related treatment interventions. Our results suggest drinking water exposure is associated with some potentially preventable gastrointestinal illness risk in high-income regions.
Water safety plan template including climate considerations for rural water supplies: United Rep. of Tanzania
This water safety plan (WSP) template was developed to support the integration of climate risks into the WSP approach in rural areas of the United Rep. of Tanzania. Examples are presented on how to complete the template, and the information should be considered and customized to the local context.
This resource was developed as part of the Department for International Development (DFID, UK)-funded project on “Building adaptation to climate change in health in least developed countries through resilient WASH” which was implemented from 2013-2018 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal and Tanzania.
Experiential Learning through Role-Playing: Enhancing Stakeholder Collaboration in Water Safety Plans
Improved water safety management, as addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals, can be aided by Water Safety Planning, a risk-assessment and risk-management approach introduced
by the World Health Organization and implemented to date in 93 countries around the globe. Yet, this approach still encounters some challenges in practice, including that of securing collaboration among the broad range of stakeholders involved. This paper presents a role-playing game designed to foster stakeholder collaboration in Water Safety Plans (WSP). In this role-play, participants take on different stakeholders’ roles during a collective (team-based) decision-making process to improve water supply safety in a fictive town. The game is the result of a transdisciplinary initiative aimed at integrating knowledge across technical and governance aspects of WSPs into an active learning experience for water sector actors from diverse backgrounds. It exposes participants to the four phases of Kolb’s experiential learning cycle: concrete experience, reflective observation, conceptualization and active experimentation. This paper discusses potential impacts of the WSP role-play, including skills and knowledge development among participants, which can support cross-sectoral integration and dealing with complexity in decision-making. These are capacity assets strongly needed to address water safety management challenges in a sustainable way.
Water safety plan template for residential care homes for the elderly
This template is prepared based on recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) to assist the owner or the house management staff of a residential care home for the elderly with an independent internal plumbing system to develop and implement a Water Safety Plan (WSP) to enhance water safety.
Guide pratique pour l’audit des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau
Ce guide vise à aider à l’élaboration et à la mise en œuvre de programmes d’audit des plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau dédiés en définissant les principes et exigences les plus importants. C’est une ressource pratique à l’intention des décideurs politiques, des organismes chargés de la réglementation ou de la surveillance de l’eau potable, des distributeurs d’eau mettant en œuvre des plans de gestion de la sécurité, et tous autres professionnels du secteur s’intéressant à la question de l’audit de ces plans.
Risk Matrix – Example of Semi-Quantitative Matrix
Example of a semi-quantitative risk matrix to classify the severity and likelihood of identified hazards and hazardous events.
Water safety planning: A roadmap to supporting resources
Principles and Practices of Drinking-water Chlorination: A guide to strengthening chlorination practices in small- to medium-sized water supplies
Practical guidance and training materials for small- and medium-sized water supplies, and for those providing training and support to these suppliers, on strengthening chlorination practices – a common improvement need identified through the WSP process in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions. Training materials include a facilitator’s guide and PowerPoint slides, and basic standard operating procedures and calculation sheets for effective and safe chlorination. The materials are based on training programmes delivered in the regions.
Operational Monitoring Plan Development: A guide to strengthening operational monitoring practices in small- to medium-sized water supplies
Practical guidance and training materials for small- and medium-sized water suppliers, and for those providing training and support to these suppliers, on strengthening operational monitoring practices – a core element of water safety planning. Training materials include a facilitator’s guide and PowerPoint slides.
Climate-resilient water safety plans: Managing health risks associated with climate variability and change
This document provides guidance on how climate considerations can be integrated into water safety planning to provide greater resilience to the current and predicted impacts of climate change and variability on water supplies. The guidance is supported by numerous practical examples of climate resilient water safety planning from both low and high income settings.
Plan de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau : un guide pratique pour l’amélioration de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau potable dans les petites communautés
Disposer d’eau potable de qualité acceptable et en suffisance est une condition préalable et essentielle à la bonne santé, au développement économique et à la durabilité des moyens de subsistance des familles des collectivités rurales. La mise en place d’un plan de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau constitue l’approche la plus efficace en vue d’assurer l’alimentation en eau potable dans les systèmes d’approvisionnement en eau à petite échelle.
Le guide pratique explique cette approche étape par étape, et présente un ensemble de modèles prêts à l’emploi afin que les personnes ou entités chargées de l’approvisionnement en eau dans les zones rurales puissent élaborer et mettre en œuvre leur propre plan de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau.
Le guide pratique s’adresse en particulier aux membres de la communauté rurale responsables de l’exploitation et de la gestion de l’approvisionnement en eau, ainsi qu’au personnel des services locaux de santé et d’approvisionnement en eau chargé de la préservation de la qualité de l’eau potable, et aux organisations non gouvernementales qui veillent à la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau potable dans les collectivités rurales.
Drinking Water Safety and Security Planning Template
A community focused WSP template to support drinking water safety and security planning in Fiji. This template is designed to make risk assessment easier for community WSP implementation.